What Is Hard-Boiled Crime Fiction?

Mystery expert Otto Penzler breaks down how to know it when you read it.

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  • Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons

Structure

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  • From the cover of The Big Sleep by Raymond Chandler

How to Tell By Looking at the Cover

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  • The Archer Files and Red Harvest

Beginning

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  • Black Mask magazines

The Greats

The Best of the Modern Writers

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  • James Ellroy (left) and Elmore Leonard (right)

    Photo Credit: Alchetron